• The Chinese Journal for the History of Science and technology NO.1 2012

The Chinese Journal for the History of Science and technology NO.1 2012

The Early Transmission of the Term “Science” as seen from the Spread of Scientific Novels in the Late Qing Dynasty
REN Dongmei
(College of Chinese Language and Literature, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China)

Abstract  The popularity of scientific novels in the late Qing dynasty contributed to a certain extent to the renewed comprehension of the connotations of the term “science” by Chinese people. Before the appearance of kexue, science and technology was generally referred to by the term gezhi. However, although we find “scientific novels”, we see very few “gezhi novels”. As people’s understanding of “science” gradually deepened they became more aware of the differences between gezhi and kexue. Through a study of the spread of late-Qing scientific novels, we not only come to understand contemporary attitudes and expectations regarding these works, we also add new dimensions to a vivid historical picture that enriches our understanding of the early dissemination of “science” in China.
Key words  science, gezhi,scientific novels,dissemination

The First Modern Integrated Science Table for New Model Schools in China: Suanbiao Hebi
CHEN Kesheng1,2 GUO Shirong1
(1. Institute for science and technology Inner Mongolia Normal University, Huhhot 010022, China
2. College of Mathematics and Computer Science Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241003, China)

Abstract  Suanbiao Hebi, a collection of science tables for teaching purposes, was printed in 1902 and used in new model schools. It is rich in content and roughly covers 7 categories. It has 51 science tables, including ones on astronomy, geography, mathematics, physics, chronology, etc, and introduces the principles behind the creation of each table. Based on surviving materials, Suanbiao Hebi is believed to be the first collection of modern integrated science tables designed for new model schools in China.
Keywords  Cui Chaoqing, Yang Bing, Suanbiao Hebi, science tables

The Translation of the Mechanical Terms in Zhongxue

NIE Fuling
(Institute for the History of Science and Technology, Inner Mongolia Normal University, Huhhot, 010022, China)

Abstract  Zhongxue is a translation of W. Whewell’s An Elementary Treatise on Mechanics, done by Joseph Edkins and Li Shanlan in 1859. Many technical terms appear here for the first time in Chinese. Based on a comparison of Mechanics with Zhongxue, this article analyses the Chinese translation of the technical terms, and comments on the methodology, characteristics and accuracy of these translations.
Key words  Zhongxue, mechanics, translation, technical terms

The First Academic Society to Introduceg Marxism into Geography
in China: Chung Hwa Geographical Society
LIU Yinchun
(Peking University, Beijing 100871, China)

Abstract  Consisting mainly of editors and teachers from high schools and universities in Shanghai, Chung Hwa Geographical Society was founded in Shanghai in 1931, and ceased activity 1936. During these five years, the Society published the Geography Quarterly (two volumes in 8 issues), and Series on Geography, including over 100 articles on geography. The Society was the first academic society to introduce Marxism and materialist dialectics into the study of geography in China. However, to date, studies on the Society remain rare. This article presents details about the Society based on surviving Society documents, materials from the schools and universities which the main members of the society worked for, contemporary academic journals, and relevant memoirs.
Key words  Chung Hwa Geographical Society,Shanghai, geography in the Republic of China,  history of geography

The Great China Chemical Works Ltd. and the Manufacture of Chinese Patent Medicines Using Western Technology in 1930s
CHEN Lijuan,
(Beijing Polytechnic College, Beijing 100042, China)
WANG Chuanchao
(Institute for the History of Natural Sciences, CAS, Beijing 100190, China)

Abstract  The Great China Chemical Works Ltd., which was founded in 1920, is one of the pioneers of the manufacture of Chinese patent medicines using Western technology, and has been committed to this for decades. This article reviews the background to this change in Chinese patent medicines, and the foundation, main works, and social impact of the Great China Chemical Works Ltd. The authors also present some ideas on the scientization of Chinese patent medicines.
Key words  The Great China Chemical Works Ltd.,the manufacture of Chinese patent medicines using Western technology

Dizhen Zhanxian and the Popularization of Earthquake Prediction Knowledge in the P.R.C.
ZHOU Yufeng
(Institute for the History of Natural Science, CAS, Beijing 100190, China)

Abstract  During the Cultural Revolution, the Chinese mainland underwent its first period of significant seismic activity since the founding of New China. In order to limit the damage of the earthquakes, a large-scale earthquake prediction program, characterized by “collective monitoring, collective defense”, was launched across China. However, levels of science and technology were not advanced enough to predict earthquakes. Thus, the main problems were how to carry out the program of earthquake prediction and how to popularize earthquake prediction knowledge among the masses. It was against this background that the journal Dizhen Zhanxian was founded. This article reviews its foundation and publication process, and introduces the major content and features of the journal. On this basis, the article explores the influence of Dizhen Zhanxian in the process of the popularization of earthquake prediction knowledge.
Key words  Dizhen Zhanxian,Earthquake Prediction,Collective Monitoring and Collective Defense ,Science Popularization

Changes in Antimony Smelting Technology in Modern China from 1896~1949
FU Jianqiu1,2, QIAN Wei1
(1. School of Economics, Hunan Institute of Engineering, Xiangtan 411104, China ) 
(2. Research Center for S&T and Civilization, Beijing University of Science & Technology, Beijing 100083, China)

Abstract  There are three phases in the changes in antimony smelting in modern China, from crude antimony smelting (1896~1907), to the Western method of “antimony-oxide to metallic antimony” (1908~1918), to the indigenization of the process of “antimony-oxide to metallic antimony” (1919~1949). The smelting technology for crude antimony involves crucible liquation. The modern method of “antimony-oxide to metallic antimony” involves first the production of antimony-oxide, and then metallic antimony. The indigenized method is in essence the imitation and localization of the modern method. These changes indicate that the direct factor in promoting its development is the interaction between the applicability of the technology and the capability of the users of the technology. However, the indigenization of technology at the cost of technological degeneration will always damage the technology and development of an industry.
Key words Antimony metallurgy ,modern history of technology , metallic ,antimony furnace , indigenization

Tracing the Formation of Kanpō Medicine in Japan
Hiroshi KOSOTO
(Kitasato University,Tokyo, Japan)

Abstract This article traces the development of Kanpō medicine from the introduction of continental medical culture into Japan prior to the Nara period through to the present day. By the middle of the Edo period the Kanpō world was dominated by the Kohō-ha Classicist School, which venerated the Han era Shanghan lun (Treatise on Cold Damage) as its key text. Other schools had also developed by then, including the Setchū-ha Eclectic School, which placed primary emphasis on the effectiveness and utility of formulas irrespective of their origin, and the Kōshōgaku-ha Verificationist School, centered on the official medical college, the Igakukan. With the arrival of Western medicine and the subsequent adopted by the Meiji government of an abolitionist policy, Kanpō medicine went into steep decline. However, it survived at the popular level, and underwent a gradual revival through the Shōwa era.Today is practiced as an officially recognized component of modern medical treatment.
Key words  Development of Kanpō, Gose-ha school, Kohō-ha School,  Setchū-ha School,  Kōshōgaku-ha School 

Keiteki Shu and the Autonomy of Japanese Medicine
(Tokyo University of Science,Tokyo, Japan)

Abstract  From the name “Kanpō” one might assume it to be Chinese medical prescriptions. However, the two are certainly different. If one considers Kanpō to be an autonomous Japanese medical system, then one must consider the questions of what makes it so and when did it begin its independent road of development. In fact, the process was a long one, and this article will merely focus on the role of Manase Dōsan (1507~1594), compiler of Keiteki Shu , and the subsequent rise of the Gose-ha school, which accomplished a certain ‘localisation to the Japan context’ before the Kohō-ha school was established.
Key  words  Japanese Kanpō medicine, Manase Dōsan, Keiteki Shu, Gose-ha  school

Follow the Vertical and Horizontal View: after Reading the Papers Written by Prof. Kosoto and Prof. Endo
LIAO Yuqun
(Institute for the History of Natural Science, CAS, Beijing 100190, China)

Abstract  It is said that: “If you want to know a picture clearly, you must first observe every part of it.” Therefore detailed case studies should be the necessary foundation for obtaining a comprehensive image at any period. Here I offer my own reflections on the papers by Professors Kosoto and Endō about the development of a number of important schools in Japanese “Kanpo” (漢方, Traditional Japanese Medicine from ancient China), such as the relationship between different schools of medicine in Japan, and between Eastern and Western medical arts, whether their development points to a common Japanese thinking type, etc.
Keywords  Kanpō schools, National characteristics , Kōshōgaku-ha Schools

On Joseph Needham’s Man a Machine and Neo-mechanism
Han Jishao
(Institute of Religion, Science and Social Studies, Shandong University, Jinan  Shandong  250100, China)

Abstract  Man a Machine is an important book to appreciate the young Joseph Needham’s worldview. In this book, Needham criticized Signor Eugenio Rignano’s theory on ultimate aspects of life, and proposed a theory of neo-mechanism. Needham recognized the supreme jurisdiction of the mechanistic theory of life, but admitted it at the same time to be a methodological fiction.
Keywords,Joseph Needham,Man a Machine,vitalism  teleology, mechanism , neo-mechanism