• The Chinese Journal for the History of Science and technology NO.2 2012

The Chinese Journal for the History of Science and technology NO.2 2012

Another War: A Study on Ping Chi and His Colleagues of the Science Society of China in Shanghai During the Anti-Japanese War
(Institute of History, Shanghai Academy of Social Science, Shanghai 200235, China)

Abstract  During the Anti-Japanese War, compared with those in “Free China”, scientists in the enemy-occupied area who wished to continue their research yet retain their integrity faced extreme hardship, even risking their lives. Ping Chi, Liu Xian, Yang Xiaoshu and other members of the Science Society of China in Shanghai in 1937—1945 overcame all manner of difficulties to keep the Society active, continuing to publish the journals Science and Science Pictorial, and keeping open the Hu Tah Mingfu library. Their efforts to maintain scientific communication, promote and document research, and nurture young scholars helped to lay the foundations for post-war Chinese scientific development. Understanding the importance of science in the War of Resistance, they published numerous articles in Science, Science Pictorial, and Shun Pao promoting the ideals of serving, saving and building China with scientific knowledge. Their struggle against the enemy during the war demonstrates the lofty sentiments of a generation of intellectuals, and is worthy of being called “another war”.
Key  words  Ping Chi, The Science Society of China, Scientific Research , Anti-Japanese War

Study on the Method of the Breakthrough Which Zhao Zhongxian and His Team Obtained During 1986~1987 Based on Written and Oral Sources
WU Yan, LIU Bing
(Institute of STS, School of Huamnities and Social Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China)

Abstract The Chinese physicist Zhao Zhongxian is famous for his  superconductivity research. During the surge in research in 1986 and 1987 into superconductors at the liquid nitrogen temperature range, Zhao was first to realize the meaning of the paper written by A. Müller and J.G. Bednorz, and conducted a study with his team. They were the first group to break the upper limit of the Tc electrons medium phonons mechanism worked out by W.L.McMillan on the basis of Strong Coupling Theory. Based on written and oral sources, this paper focuses on the study conducted by Zhao and his team and analyses the method typically embodied in Zhao’s studies.
Key  words  Zhao Zhongxian, superconductor physics, High Tc superconductor, physical image, method of collective study

Japanese Surveys for Bauxite Shale in Northeast China (1924~1935)
FENG Xunwan, ZHANG Meifang
(Institute of Historical Metallurgy & Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China)

Abstract  Having organized the historical data of the South Manchuria Railway Corporation’s surveys to locate bauxite resources in northeast China in the 1920s and 1930s, we ascertained that in 1924 the Japanese first found bauxite shale in the Yantai coal mine in Liaoning Province. By 1930, many places with bauxite shale in the Liaodong peninsula had been investigated by them. After the Mukden Incident, the Guandong Army also organized surveys for national defense resources, including three explorations of bauxite resources in northeast China. To some extent, these mineral explorations matched the pace of Japan’s invasion in China, foreshadowing Japan’s large-scale plunder of China’s bauxite resources, and they were a very important factor for stimulating and supporting Japanese colonial expansion and aggression.
Key words  Bauxite Shale, Mineral Exploration, Colonial Science

The First Female Chinese Ph.D. in Chemistry - Chi Che Wang
KANG Jing, LI Yanping
(Department of Physics, Capital Normal University of China 100048, China)

Abstract  Chi Che Wang went to United States for study in 1907 as one of the earliest overseas Chinese students supported by the government of China. In 1918 she completed her graduation thesis “The Chemistry of Chinese Preserved Eggs and Chinese Birds’ Nests” and got a science doctorate from Chicago University. Afterwards she was engaged in teaching and research in many American universities and hospitals. Her research fields included nutrition, organic chemistry and bacteriology.
Key words  Chi Che Wang,University of Chicago, preserved egg, nutrition , studying abroad

Germany and the Establishment of the Pah Kong Hau Arsenal in Canton
LUO Yongming
(Dept. of History of Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026, China)

Abstract  At the beginning of the 1930s, Chen Jitang, the leader of the Canton Government, founded a modern arsenal at Pah Kong Hau in Qingyuan Town, Canton in order to equip him to confront the Nanjing Government and enhance its self-defense capability. The building, machinery, management and technology of the arsenal were heavily German-influenced. Hapro, a company established by a German businessman Hans Klein, played a central role in its establishment and expansion, while many Chinese graduates returning from Germany worked there, increasing this influence.
Key words  Exchange of technology between China and Germany ,Hapro  Pah,  Kong Hau Arsenal

Study on a Dong Clan Drum Tower Structure and Its Construction Techniques
ZHANG Heping, LUO Yongchao, YAO Renhai
(School of Mathematics and Physics, Kaili University, Kaili Guizhou 556011, China)

Abstract  Drum Towers of the Dong Clan are unique treasures of traditional architectural culture. This study is the result of visiting and measuring the Dong Clan Drum Tower at Qiandongnan in Guizhou province. It analyses various aspects of the geometry and ratios of its construction, and their correspondence with its decoration, arguing that it is an example of the realization of Descarte’s ideas and the notion of “golden beauty”.
Keywords Dong Clan Drum Tower,Drum-tower Structure,Construction techniques

Measurement and Evaluation of City Wall and Moat Construction in Ancient China
Wang Maohua,
(The Center for Studies of Song History, Hebei University, Baoding, 071002, China)
Yao Jiangen,
(Jiangnan Culture Research Center, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, 321004, China)
Lü Wengjing
(Office of Management and construction of new campus, Hebei University, Baoding, 071002, China)

Abstract  City construction was one of the main areas of government activity in ancient China, its construction measurement and budgetary techniques reaching a mature level. This article traces the history of city wall and moat construction measurement and budgetary techniques in ancient China, including research on such aspects as the institutions, legislation, executive standards and technical staff involved. The article also introduces the construction quota, man-power and materials expenditure, engineering calculations and quantity analysis involved in ancient city wall and moat construction by using construction project management theory to analyse records in works such as Sunzi Suanjing, Tongdian, Shenji Zhidi Taibai Yinjing, Yingzao Fashi, Shuxue Jiuzhang, Gongbu Changku Xuzhi, Chengyuan Zuofa Ceshi and other related literature. The authors argue that though these techniques were relatively mature, sometimes human factors led to budget inaccuracies.
Keywords  ancient China, city walls and moats,  measurement,  Quantity analysis

Preface for Saying Goodbye to Qin Fen of Jiading, Returning to China
V.K.Ting (posthumous)
Organized, criticized, and explained by SONG Guangbo
(Institute of Modern History, Cass, Beijing 100006, China)

Abstract  Biographical materials concerning V. K. Ting’s time studying abroad are very rare. Therefore, details about his study, thought and social activities during this period are hardly known in academic circles. The Preface for saying goodbye to Qin Fen of Jiading, returning to China penned by Ms Qin Shunying is significant in this regard. The preface reflects Ting’s thoughts on study abroad and his ideals and ambitions after he returns to China.
Key words  V.K.Ting, Qin Fen 

Comments on A History of Science and Technology in China: Mathematics Section
HORNG Wann-Sheng
(Department of Mathematics, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116)

Abstract  In this brief review on Guo Shuchun ed., A History of Science and Technology in China: Mathematics Section, I give my comments on its content and approaches as adopted by its authors, as well as its view on the historiography of Chinese mathematics in order to explain how it is meaningful and beneficial to the discipline. 
Key words A History of Science and Technology in China: Mathematics Section,review