• The Chinese Journal for the History of Science and Technology NO.4 2012

  My Geology Career Narrated by ZHU Tinghu  

  Recorded and Edited by ZHOU Shili 

  (Zhejiang Institute of Geological Sciences, Hangzhou 310007) 

  Zhu Tinghu (1895—1984) pursued a career in geology for more than 60 years, conducting mineralogical and hydrogeological surveys in 19 provinces and autonomous regions of China. He established or managed several types of geological research institutions, served as professor in several universities, and authored many tens of geological reports and research articles. This relatively complete and lively autobiography of the main events of his life was narrated by him before his death. 

 

  The Arrangement of Scientific Institutions under the Pressure of the Cold War: The example of the Response of the Chinese Academy of Sciences  

  in the Early Period of the San Xian Construction 

  LIU Yang, ZHANG Li 

  (Institute for the History of Natural Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing) 

  By analyzing the adjustment in the arrangement of scientific institutions inside CAS at the beginning of the Sanxian (Three Lines) construction, this paper illustrates the situation of both the response of CAS to economic construction movements in preparation for the Cold War and its support for San Xian construction. It then points out the influence of the adjustment of national strategy on the arrangement of scientific institutions inside CAS. 

 

  Advertisements in Science from 1915—1960’s and the Cultural  

  Network of Science 

  LIU Hao 

  Institute for the History of Natural ScienceCASBeijing 100190China 

  During the period 1915 to 1960, 36 volumes of the journal Kexue (Science) were published by the Science Society of China. These volumes include more than 5800 advertisements. Cultural advertisements, for instance for books and magazines, education and research, account for 90% of the total. In contrast, the number of advertisements for commodities was small. These advertisements not only had important economic function, but also played a vital role in the culture of science at the time. Scientists, publishers, teachers, students, industrialists, government officers and the public constructed a cultural network of science together using the advertisements in Science as a medium. This network played an important role in spreading the knowledge and spirit of science during the process of China's modern transformation.  

 

  Research on the China’s First Paper on Topology 

  Chen Kesheng  

  College of Mathematics and Computer Science Anhui Normal University, Anhui Wuhu, 241002 

  Currently there are two viewpoints about China’s first paper on topology. One is that David Yule published the first one in 1925 or 1926. This view comes from Li Ta in his paper “Three Decades of Chinese Mathematics” in Kexue (Science), 1944, no.3. The alternative view holds that Tsai-Han Kiang published the first one in 1931. This study shows that Yule’s paper was published in 1926, and was about mathematical logic, not topology. China’s first topology paper was indeed published by Tsai-han Kiang in 1931. That is to say that Chinese began to study topology in 1931.  

 

  A New Study on the Introduction of Western Earthquake Knowledge into late Ming and early Qing China 

  XU Guangyi  

  (The Institute for the History of Natural Science, CAS. Beijing 100010China) 

  In the 17th century, the Aristotelian theory of earthquakes was transmitted into China through the works of N. Longobardo, A. Vagnone and F. Verbiest. To understand N. Longobardo’s purpose in writing Di Zhen Jie, and to find out the source of the information in this book, this paper introduces early Western knowledge about earthquakes, and discusses the course of the writing of Di Zhen Jie and the relationships between the people involved, arguing that the main sources for this book are the commentaries on Aristotle’s Meteorology. The paper also compares Di Zhen Jie with Kongji Gezhi and Kunyu Tushuo, concluding that a process of simplification proceeds from Di Zhen Jie to Kunyu Tushuo, and that the description of God is gradually reduced. To conclude, this paper discusses the influence of the transmission of Western earthquake knowledge into China. 

 

  Preliminary Studies on Ancient Iron Smelting Sites in  

  Guiping City, Guangxi 

  HUANG Quansheng,  

  (Guangxi Radio and TV University, Nanning 530022, China) 

  LI Yanxiang 

  (University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China) 

  This paper offers a recent study on iron smelting sites and slag remains of the Han and Tang dynasty found in Luoxiu town, Guiping City, Guangxi Region. Preliminarily analysis using metallographic microscopy, scanning electron microscope with energy-dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) of 18 samples of slag and tuyere collected from 4 sites are presented. The results show that the matrix of slag is mainly composed of fayalite as the dominant component, and that the site made use of bloomery iron smelting techniques. 

 

  Early Years of the Institute of Mechanics, CAS: An Interview with  

  Prof. Tan Qingming 

  Recorded and emended by XIONG Weimin , WANG Lina and 

  (Institute for the History of Nature Science , CASBeijing 100190China) 

  LI Xinxin 

  (School of Physics and Electrical and Information Engineering, Daqing Normal College,Daqing 163712,China) 

  As the record of an interview with Prof. Tan Qingming about the early history of the Institute of Mechanics, CAS, this article relates how Zhu Zhaoxiang and Lin Hongsong helped H. S. Tsien and Chien Wei-chang to establish the Institute of Mechanics; the thought behind the establishment of the Institute of Mechanics by H. S. Tsien and Guo Yonghuai; the impact of political movements such as the Anti-Rightist, the Great Leap Forward and Four Pests Campaign on the Institute; the birth and the first surge of development of explosion mechanics at the Institute; and the achievements of Qian shouyi and Che-Min Cheng, etc. 

 

  The Ai You Association during the Republic of China 

  FAN Tiequan, CHEN Xing 

  (College of History, Hebei University, Baoding 071002) 

  The Ai You Association was a medical and health group set up by graduates of the National Beijing Medical School during the Republic of China, which aimed at promoting “a network of like-minded people, exchange of knowledge and the spread of medical knowledge in society”. The association was devoted to promoting China's medical development by publications and medical inquiry. In its publications, the Ai You Association members clarified many views on epidemic prevention, medical ethics, and mental health of women and children, etc. 

 

  Heihe Animal Quarantine Bureau: the First Entry-Exit Animal Quarantine Organization Established by the Government of the Republic of China 

  HU Shen, LI Zhi-ping 

  School of Public Health, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001, China 

  Archival research indicates that Heihe Animal Quarantine Bureau (HAQB), founded in 1914 and closed down in 1929, was the first animal quarantine organization established by the government of the Republic of China. This article discusses and analysis the reasons for its establishment, the basic situation, roles, regulations and duties of HAQB. A case for its historical importance is also made. 

 

  A Further Study on the Measuring of Time in the Military 

  in Pre-Modern China 

  WANG Xiaohu 

  School of Public Administration, South China Normal University, Guangdong, Guangzhou, 510006 

  The ways of measuring time used by the military in pre-modern China were relatively simple. We can see two cases in old texts - pace-counting and bead-counting. Since the cycles of sunrise and sunset were used as the fixed points for using these methods, they needed to consult the official calendars. These methods can provide a new perspective for research on the history of time measurement.