• Studies in the History of Natural Sciences NO.1 2002

Studies in the History of Natural Sciences  NO.1 2002


《甲种敦煌算书》的考校和释补……郭正忠 ( 1 )

Research and Proofreading on Pelliot 2667-Tunhuang Mathematical Manuscripts………GUO Zhengzhong (1 )

【Abstract】 More than half a century ago, Mr. Li Yan had for many times introduced and inquired into Pelliot 2667-Tunhuang Mathematical Manuscripts, which he concluded to be produced in the Tang Dynasty and was explained and supplemented by him in detail. After reading and checking the original manuscripts, this paper holds that these fragmentary manuscripts should belong to mathematical works of the Northern Dynasty (386 - 581). On the basis of evaluating in an all-round way the work of explanation and supplementation by predecessors, it discriminates, proofreads and explains again the content of various exercises, details of operation and style of written characters so as to present the original look of this precious document that can be dated back to one thousand four or five years ago.

四元消法的增根与减根问题……李兆华 ( 12)

On Problems of Extraneous and Lost Roots of Equations in the Method of the Four

Elements……LI Zhaohua (12)

【Abstract】 As the core of the method of Four Elements recorded in Zhu Shijie's the Siyuan Yujian (Jade Mirror of the Four Elements, 1303) ,the elimination method is one of the important results of traditional mathematics in China. Through comparing equations found by determinant and Zhu's method, this paper points out that extraneous or lost roots possibly exist in the equations of Zhu Shijie. The author tries to supply new evidence in order to evaluate Zhu's work completely.

发展科技的指导思想:从延安时期到建国初期……杨丽凡 ( 21)

Guiding Ideology of Science and Technology:From the Yan’an Period to the Initial

Stage After the Founding of People’s Republic of China……YANG Lifan (21 )

【Abstract】 The guiding ideology for science and technology of the initial stage after thefounding of People's Republic of China and that of the Yan'an period might be traced to the same origin. Both enforced that science and technology should serve for the reconstruction of the country. Why did the guiding ideology come down in one continuous line? In this connection, there are two reasons. First, the Chinese Communist Party still had fresh recollections of the obvious benefits brought by science and technology to the reconstruction and people's life in liberated area during the Yan'an period. So. after the liberation, it was natural for the Communist Party to emphasize that science and technology should serve for the country's recontruction. Second, persons in charge of the Yan'an Natural Sciences Institute held important positions after liberation, which was favourable for them to carry out the guiding ideology for science and technology in the Yan'an period even after liberation.The deep reason for the inheritance of the guiding ideology for science and technology is the guiding principle of the Communist Party,namely Marxism. The Marxist theory holds that knowledge comes from practice and should return to practice to be tested. That's why the Communist Party always stresses that science theory should serve for the country's reconstruction practice.The guiding ideology for science and technology of the initial stage after the founding of People's Republic of China had a more profound and lasting impact on the development of science and technology in China. And the procedure of its implementation was better organized and planned. The country's reconstruction relied more on science and technology. The overall thinking for the management of science and technology, which originated during the Yan'an period, was enhanced after liberation. At that time, the experiences of development planning for science and technology in the Soviet Union exerted a strong influence on China. In addition, planning the development program for science and technology became an important part of the development plan for the country's economy. In the meantime, along with the recovery and improvement of economy, a trace of concern about the development of science and technology began to appear.

确定“理论与实际关系”的困境:政治指向与发展指向的冲突……李真真 ( 33)

Dilemma About Defining “the Relationship between Theory and Practice”:The

Conflict Between Political and Developmental Directions ……LI Zhenzhen (33 )

【Abstract】 This article focuses on the following two questions: Why did the new government choose to deal with issues of science and technology policy under China's unique and conceptual and logic framework of "the relationship between theory and practice"? And in what sense could the difference between this framework and that of science and technology policy meet the demands of the choosers? The author begins with a review of the way that "the relationship between theory and practice" evolved into a common language for the discussion of science and technology policy. Then she analyzes the various versions of "the relationship between theory and practice" against the background of such a unique political structure and cultural domain, and expectations behind this relationship which tended to be of value shortage. Hence, the conflict aroused by the pragmatism of "the integration of theory with practice "kept tuning the concept and made its conation even more confusing. Finally, the author examines the unique cultural and psychological bases on which the "integration of theory with practice" became the ethical concern of scientists and was further transferred into the driving force for their self-negation.

方中通《数度衍》中所见的约瑟夫斯问题……郭世荣 ( 49)

Josephus’ Problem Appeared in Chinese Mathematical Work Shudu Yan by Fang

Zhongtong ……GUO Shirong (49 )

【Abstract】 In the Vol. 23 of Fang Zhongtong's mathematical work Shudu Yan (1687) a problem which belongs to the system of Josephus' Problem. It is the only appearance of this kind of problem in China. This paper first introduces the history of Josephus' Problem, and then analyses Fang Zhongtong's description of the problem and his result, pointing out that his propositions do not hold for all cases proposed by him. In addition, the author also discuses the significance of Fang's propositions.

试论绫织物的由来和早期生产……赵承泽 赵瀚生 (56 )

The Origin and Early Evolution of the Fabric Ling……ZHAO Chengze, ZHAO Hansheng (56 )

【Abstract】 As a fabric, the ling of today is different from that of ancient times in meaning and range of application. From the time of appear-ance and the grain of ling and wan, this paper infers that ling was developed from wan. The paper expounds on the origin, evolution and establishment of the term ling,and asserts that with the expansion of ling-producing area, the majority offolk weavers settling in big cities during the Han Dynasty already mastered and were able to use relevant weaving techniques to make ling. The start for the consumption of ling fabrics among the people of Han Dynasty laid a foundation for the general development of ling fabrics in the Three Kingdoms period. That ling is regarded as a representative among so many fabrics is because of its weaving style style and feature. Its appearance and existence led ancient China's silk weaving into a completely new realm. 

试论框锯的发明与建筑木作制材……李 浈 ( 67)

Research on the Invention of Frame-saw and Its Influence on Timber-making in

Chinese Architecture ……LI Zhen (67 )

【Abstract】 Knife saw was used as one of Chinese carpenter's tools for a long period in the early days, but it could not be used for timber-making. The frame saw was used at the later stage of the Northern and Southern Dynasties. It was developed gradually from arched-saw, which was evolved from knife saw. The invention of frame-saw directly affects on the technology of wooden system material making, formed the skill prerequisite for the caifen system of traditional architecture, and influenced every aspect of traditional architectural skill and art.

《墨经》光学第九条——折射的定量观察……李志超 (80 )

Item 9 in Optics of Mo Jing:Quantitative Observation on Refraction ……LI Zhichao (80 )

《中国古代动物学史》古动物名考误……李海霞 ( 81)

A Corrections to the Wrong Explanation for Ancient Names in the Zoological History

of Ancient China ……LI Haixia (81 )

【Abstract】 This article corrects 10 ancient animal names in Shanhaijing (Classic of Mountains and Rivers) which are wrongly explained by the Zoological History of Ancient China published in 1999.