• Studies in the History of Natural Sciences NO.3 2002

Studies in the History of Natural Sciences  NO.3 2002

中国近现代科学的回顾与展望……路甬祥(193 )

Review and Prospect of Modern and Contemporary Science in China……LU Yongxiang (193 )

【Abstract】 The author discusses the course of history of the development of Chinese science and technology in the last 150 years.Taking organizational systemization as the main thread,this paper first briefs the propagation of modern science in China,then deals with the establishment of China's modern and contemporary science and education and scientific research system,the formation of new China's planned scientific research system and its advantages and disadvantages,the reform and exploration of scientific research system in the last 20 years and the historical necessity and development trend of the implementation of the strategy to rejuvenate the nation by science and education and set up a national innovation system, and ends with a forecast of the development of Chinese science in the 21st century. In the opinion of the author,the progress of China's science and technology in the past 150 years has been tremendous, but in the great mansion of science erected by all mankind in the 20th century,the portion contributed by China remains to be quite insignificant. From“Saving the country by science”and “Saving the country by industry”in the first years of the 20th century to “Catching up with and surpassing Britain and the United States”in the 1950s, and going through“The Ten Chaotic Years”from 1966 to 1976,“the Second Spring”for Chinese science was ushered in during the late 1970s and the early 1980s, and again to “Rejuvenating the nation by science and education” and building up a national innovation system in the closing period of the 20th century,the development of science in China has passed through an unusually tortuous road. For more than 100 years, the development of China's science and technology was deeply influenced by the change of the Chinese society. In the 21st century, the creation of a social mechanism beneficial to the development of science and the innovation of technology is still of crucial importance for the development of science and technology in China.

“自立”精神与历算活动——康乾之际文人对西学态度之改变及其背景……韩 琦(210 ) The Spirit of Self-dependence and the Appropriation of Western Science: The Transition in Chinese Literati’s Attitude Toward Western Science and Its Social Context (Ca. 1700-1760)……HAN Qi (210 )

【Abstract】 The transition in the attitude of Chinese scholars toward Western science between early Qing and the mid-Qianlong period is a rather complex problem.This paper tries to extend methods from social and cultural studies to explain how European sciences were accepted in the 18th centuty by Chinese literati who simultaneously defended their traditional sciences.Using both Chinese and Western sources,the paper explores why Kangxi emperor's attitude toward European science changed from trust to doubt around 1711,and why Kangxi and his third son Yinzhi strove to become independent of Jesuit control in matters of celendrical reform.By analysing the conflict between Christian astronomers and non-Christian literati,it explains why He Guozong (?—1763)and Mei Juecheng (1681—1763),both non-Christian scholars,were selected as the main editors of the Lüli Yuanyuan and how Chinese court mathematicians significantly influenced the attitude toward Western science in the latter part of the Qianlong reign.

黄百家与日月五星左、右旋之争……杨小明( 222) Huang Baijia’s Position in the Debate About the Left-handed or Right-handed Rotation of the

Sun, Moon and Five Planets Around the Earth in Ancient China……YANG Xiaoming (222 )

【Abstract】 Analysis of newly-found historical materials shows that the debate about the left-handed or right-handed rotation of the sun, moon and five planets(namely,Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn)around the earth since Wang Xichan in early Qing Dynasty was not calmed down. Taking Western astronomy, especially its multi-heaven theory as basis,Mei Wending and Huang Baijia, both contemporaries of Wang Xichan, had the debate developed on a new level.By analysing Huang Baijia's position in the debate, an important conclusion is reached in this paper.That is,by developing China's traditional achievements, and by introducing Western astronomy, especially Tycho's system(its multi-heaven theory and measured astronomical data),Huang Baijia not only questioned the left-handed rotation theory, but also complemented and developed the right-handed rotation theory to a completely new height.

建部贤弘的数学认识论——论《大成算经》中的“三要” ……徐泽林(232 )

Takebe Katahiro’s Epistemology of Mathematics……XU Zelin (232 )

【Abstract】 xiang xing,man gan and shu are three categories discussed in Daisei Sankei,written by the Japanese mathematician Takebe Katahiro of the Edo era. They are also disciplines in Daisei Sankei,and are called sanyao(three main points).Stemming from shushu in traditional Chinese culture,these categories are hard to understand, and are ignored in the history of Japanese mathematics all the time. This paper, which proceeds from the cultural tradition of Chinese mathematics, interprets these words again, and puts forward some completely new viewpoints. The paper considers that among the mathematicians of Using Chinese Characters, Takebe Katahiro was the first to state systematically the essence of mathematics science,discussed an object of mathematics and its existence,involved the discussion to mathematics variable, and categorized the real number system under the cultural sphere of Chinese xiangshu xue.His mathematical standpoint of sanyao is a reflection of epistemology of mathematics of Using Chinese Characters, and has mathematics philosophy significance.

20世纪50年代中苏数学交流的特点及其对中国数学发展的影响 ……姚 芳(244 ) Characteristics of China-USSR Exchanges on Mathematics and Their Influence on Development

of Mathematics in China……YAO Fang (244 )

【Abstract】 Based on some original materials and references,this paper analyses the forms,contents and results of mathematical exchanges between USSR and China in the 1950's,based on some original materials and references.The paper gives the four main characteristics of mathematical exchanges in China in that period of time.Furthermore,it discusses the influence of mathematics of former Soviet Union on the development of Chinese mathematics.


Double-Harvest Rice in the Song Dynasty……ZENG Xiongsheng (255 )

【Abstract】 The so-called "early rice" and "late rice" in the Song Dynasty were not the same as double-harvest or double-cropping rice in the modern sense, but the double-harvest rice did exist in the said dynasty. There were then three types of double-harvest rice: ratooning rice, intercropping rice and continuous cropping rice. Ratooning rice or re-harvest rice, grandson of rice, second rice, heir rice and pregnant rice were distributed mainly in Zhejiang, Jiangnan (including present Jiangxi and southern Anhui), Huainan (northern Anhui), Fujian and Hubei. Intercropping rice, also named Jisheng, was mostly distributed in the southern part of Zhejiang. Though there was no specific name for continuous cropping rice in the Song Dynasty, there were still many varieties of rice for continuous cropping, such as Wukou (black mouth) rice in Jiangsu, Wuxian and the second in Zhejiang, Huangluhe rice in Jiangxi, shu and Xiantai in Fujian, and Yuehe in Lingnan (now Guangdong and Guangxi). Furthermore, there were some varieties which were used not only for early rice but also for late rice, and this should be the outcome of continuous cropping. Due to the inferiority of variety, low output, the conflict between growing season and labour, needs for pasture, and the shortage of manure and water, however, the total acreage of double-harvest rice was not very large, and the role it played in the supply of food in the Song Dynasty was also insignificant. The development of double-harvest rice in the Song Dynasty depended mainly on old varieties, and had little to do with the then imported Champa rice featured by its early ripening and drought resistance.

昂布鲁瓦兹·帕雷《解剖学》之中译本…… (比) 钟鸣旦(269)

A Chinese Translation of Ambroise Paré’s Anatomy ……Nicolas Standaert (269 )

【Abstract】 This article is a preliminary study of Renshen Tushuo(Illustrated Explanation of the Human Body),an early seventeenth century manuscript preserved in the Beijing University Library.It identifies this text as a translation of Ambroise Paré's Anatomy.This identification makes it possible to prove that the Jesuits did not add religious references to the scientific knowledge in order to propagate their faith,but that they transmitted a whole system in which these domains were already combined.The Chinese reception of this writing was limited,possibly due to the fact that anatomy was a “theoretical knowledge” in the European classification of sciences at that time.Skeletons in the style of Vesalius and Paré,however,appear in paintings by Luo Ping(1733—1799).By transposing Western medicine into the strange world of ghosts and spirits,he thus relocated it in a new religious context.

关于对一行等人工作的认识…… (英)古克礼(283)

On Recognising the Work of Yixing, and Others……Christopher Cullen (283)