• Studies in the History of Natural Sciences NO.4 2005

Studies in the History of Natural Sciences  NO.4 2005




A Research on the Functional Test and Sensing Principle for the Ancient Earthquake Direction Detector Invented by Zhang Heng in A.D.132……WANG Pengfei

【Abstract】 This paper deals with the background of the invention and the functional test of Zhang Heng's earthquake direction detector,analyses the discussions of the invention among previous scholars,propose a new understanding of the P.S.R.seimic waves,and evaluates the papers on the reproduction of Zhang Heng's earthquake direction in the past 60 years.The writer affirms the lofly historical position of Zhang Heng's direction as the first seismism in the world,and hopes that the paper may be useful for one to grasp the original construction idea of Zhang Heng's direction.A correct idea to reform the ancient Chinese earthquake direction in future is also given in the paper.




On the Brahmahoranavagraha As Well As Its Date and Authorship……NIU Weixing

【Abstract】 The features,contents and structure of the Esoteric Buddhist sutra Brahmahoranavagraha are analyzed first.It is then confirmed that the sutra is a copy of typical Esoteric Buddhist astrological text which contains quite a lot of Indian astronomical material.According to the evidences provided by the sutra itself,it is proved that the date of the sutra's being written out was not later than A.D.751.It is also deduced that the main part of the sutra's content was most possibly written or initiated by Yi Xing,but some paragraphs were appended to the text by Yi Xing's successor or later readers of the sutra.Besides,the significance of the Brahmahoranavagraha as an important evidence of diffusion of astronomy between different cultures and countries is also elucidated penetratingly.




Investigations of New Formulas for Helical Springs by A.M.Wahl &Joseph Kaye Wood and Wang Ki-Tung's Response……GUO Jinhai

【Abstract】 This paper looks into the investigations on new formulas for helical springs conducted by A.M.Wahl and Joseph Kaye Wood,both of whom were members of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.It also explores Wang Ki-Tung's response to their investigations with his own results in 1930.At the time,Wang Ki-Tung(1875~1948)was a professor in the National Research Institute of Engineering,Academia Sinica.One result of Wang's work is equivalent to A.M.Wahl's,although the two of them reached their conclusions in different ways;another result is the same as the work done by Joseph Kaye Wood.As far as Wang's education is concerned,it was not easy for him to achieve success.Wang's research departed from the central task of his institute at that time,but he was an important member of the institute.As the paper points out,Wang Ki-Tung was the first Chinese scholar trained entirely in China to publish treatises in international academic journals,who contributed to a number of different fields in his researches on modern science.




On the Early Experience of the Pugwash Movement and Its Significance……YOU Zhanhong, LIU Dun

【Abstract】 The Pugwash Movement,an international society of scientists against nuclear weapons and war,was launched by Bertrand Russell,Albert Einstein,Frédéric Joliot-Curie and others during the mid 1950s.This paper analyzes the five main causes of its growth into an eminent international association of scientists during the Cold War:transcending political bloc interests and ideologies for the survival and security of mankind;close collaboration between natural and social scientists to limit arms proliferation,and promote nuclear disarmament and international security;using scientific knowledge to sway the media,the general public,and the international scientific community and win support from all sectors of society;pursuing diversified sources of financial support to preserve the soaèty's independence;and influencing government decision-makers through scientific analysis and rational inquiry.The paper also probes briefly into how the Pugwash Movement can serve to inspire Chinese scientists to assume their social responsibility and commitment to international affairs.




Correction of The Reading Notes on Interpretation of Plant-Naming Written by Xia Wei-Ying……TAN Hongjiao

【Abstract】 The Reading Notes on Interpretation of Plant-Naming is written by Xia Weiying,a famous agronomist and botanist of China.The book researches the plant-naming in Chinese.It contributes not only to such sciences as botany and medicine,but also to etymology,the naming and description of a thing and nomenclature of Chinese.It must be pointed out that between natural attribution and reason of plant-naming,Mr.Xia emphasizes the attribution,so he makes use of falsemeans such as optional phonic transfer,disruption from the use of words, breaking of Lianmianci,and interpreting the meaning incorrectly.




A Review on The History of Modern Genetics in China……LUO Guihuan

【Abstract】 The History of Modern Genetics in China edited by Tan Jiazhen and Zhao Gongming is a book which is affluent in information.The writers introduced amply the hard experience of modern genetics in China from various points of view.This paper comments briefly on the characteristics and scarcities in their work.