• Studies in the History of Natural Sciences NO.3 2012

  On the Wenjin Version of the Jiuzhang suanshu 

    

  Guo Shuchun 

  (The Institute for the History of Natural Sciences, CAS, Beijing 100190China) 

  After comparing the version of the Jiuzhang suanshu九章筭术 (Nine Chapters on the Art of Mathematics) in the Siku quanshu 四库全书 (A Complete Collection of the Four Branches of Literature) preserved in the Wenjin Library 文津阁with that housed in the Wenyuan Library 文渊阁and the edition of Juzhen 聚珍版, this paper believes that the Wenjin version is much better than the Wenyuan version, and even has fewer mistakes than the edition of the Juzhen. The paper also argues that the Wenjin version was directly copied from the progenitor of the collated texts of the Jiuzhang suanshu by Dai Zhen戴震, and it is earlier than the Wenyuan version, which was not directly copied from the progenitor but from its inferior copy. The approach the author of this paper had used in collating the Yongle dadian永乐大典(The Yongle Encyclopedia) version of the Jiuzhang suanshu by using the Juzhen version and the Siku versions is correct, but he has misused the Wenyuan version. A more accurate version of the Jiuzhang suanshu would result from using primarily the Wenjin version checked against both the Juzhen and the Wenyuan versions.

 

  Husang in the Southern Song Dynasty 

    

  ZHOU Qing 

  (School of Humanities and Law, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China) 

    

  Mulberry Husang is a population cultivar involving several hundred landraces originally planted in the Hangzhou-Jiaxing-Huzhou Plain in northern Zhejiang province as early as the Southern Song Dynasty. The landscape between the Taihu Lake and Qiantang River changed through the past one thousand years. Many swamps were turned into arable lands in the Hangzhou-Jiaxing-Huzhou Plain in the Southern Song Dynasty and mulberry Husang are growing well in the low-lying fields. Farmers might discover some directional variation when they were pruning or cultivating or picking in the mulberry garden. They selected the branches which had the excellent variation and used them to graft. They were quite fond of planting the grafting mulberry since the Southern Song Dynasty and they used many technologies to control the height of tree trunk, and created a set of technologies in the process of mulberry pruning.  

 

  The Era and Relevant Problems on Ancient Paper Unearthed 

           in Xuanquan Site, Gansu 

    

   LI Xiaocen1 WANG Hui2HE Chaohai1 

  (1.  Institute of Historical Metallurgy and Materials University of Science and Technology  Beijing 

  (2.  Beijing 100083,China;2.Gansu Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and ArchaeologyLanzhou 730000,China 

  Making an analysis on the era of each layer of ancient paper unearthed in Xuanquan Site, Gansu according to the chronglogy of bamboo slips, this thesis finds the chronglogy of both the third and the fourth layers of bamboo slips to be the one of the Western Han Dynasty, and these two layers are exactly of the Western Han Dynasty without perturbation of cultural relics in the layer of the Eastern Han Dynasty. The thesis shows the historical fact that paper and papermaking technique were already invented in the Western Han Dynasty. Through the analysis on paper in each layer, the author argue that paper in early Western Han was made of bast fiber by the pouring method, and explain that the papermaking technique in China dates from the hemp paper made using the pouring method. However, the paper made with use of the dipping method is unearthed in the late layer, the first or second layer of an uncertain era, and the possibility of paper being made in the Eastern Han Dynasty is not excluded. As regards the manufacture of ancient papers or after their manufacture, they were subjected to process treatments on a part of them, such as interior filling or surface coating, and the paper with starch coating on its surface belongs to the primary coated paper.  

 

  Study on the Gaoling Iron Smelting Site in Xingye County of Guangxi 

    

  HUANG Quansheng1, LI Yanxiang2 

  (1.Guangxi Radio and TV University, Nanning 530022, China;  

   2.University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China) 

  With an area of about 2000m2, the Gaoling iron smelting site is located on the hillside of Mount Gaoling at Tengchongcun village of Long’an town, Xingye County, Guangxi Province. In the autumn of 2006, 2008 and 2011, the author of this paper investigated and collected samples time and again at the site. The composition and microstructure of the 6 slag samples collected from the iron smelting site are analyzed by using metallographic microscopy, mineralographic microscopy, and scanning electron microscope with energy-dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS). The date of the site is investigated by using the method of 14C-AMS. The results show that the slag is mainly composed of MnO-SiO2-Al2O3, glassy as dominant component, and cast iron smelting technique is used at the site which was about AD 875±35 in the late Tang dynasty. 

 

  A Study on Imperial Bronze Type in the Qing Dynasty 

  XIANG Xuan 

  (Institute of Qing HistoryRenmin University of ChinaBeijing 100872China) 

    

  The imperial bronze type in Qing Dynasty is a classic topic in the history of typography in China. Due to the lack of documents, archives and material objectshowever, the academic circles are still quite confused about itwhich has become a much discussed issue. Aided by the newly found first-hand archives, this paper proves that in 1716in order to compile and print Gujin tushu jicheng (Collection of Books Ancient and Modern)Emperor Kangxi granted Chen Menglei's request to set up the Institute of Bronze Typography in Wuying Hall. And then Chen and his partners made more than one million bronze types in both big and small sizes. In 1744Emperor Qianlong approved Prince Hongzhou to melt the 1015433 bronze types to cast the Buddhas of Three Periods in the Yonghegong Lama Temple but not to cast coins as commonly believed. Besidesthere were 188404 bronze types without words were melt to cast bronze furnaces and bronze lions for furnishing. Howeverthe existence of bronze types without words not only proves that there were still huge amounts of reserved bronze types but also reveals that the production of the imperial bronze types in the Qing Dynasty included two steps: cast bronze types without words firstly and then carve on them . 

 

  Study on the Center of Gravity of Chime Stone by Three Chinese Scholars in Late Qing Dynasty  

  BAI Xin1 , FENG Lisheng2  

  1. Department of Physics, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048China;  

  2. Institute for History of Science and Technology & Ancient Texts, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China 

  With a history of more than 4,000 years, Chime Stone is a very ancient percussion instrument in China. Kao Gong Ji (Artificers’ Record) was the first book to describe its shape, standard and tuning techniques. Locating the center of gravity and hanging hole on chime stone was crucial for the manufacturing work. In ancient times, however, the ways to find its center of gravity had not been defined for a long time until the Qing Dynasty when Chinese scholars gradually accepted the western concept and knowledge of center of gravity. Among them, scholars who studied Kao Gong Ji began to focus on Chime Stone’s center of gravity and locate it by use of mathematical methods. Then Cheng Yaotian and Wang Lai conducted a groundbreaking research, but resulted in an incorrect solution. Finally, Zou Boqi found out the key problems in the study by Cheng and Wang and got accurate results in locating the center of gravity for Chime Stone. 

 

  Research on the Survey in Lhasa and Its Surrounding Areas  

  by the British Expedition to Tibet under Younghusband 

                            in the Early 20th Century 

  LIU Liang 

  (Institute for the History of Natural Science, CAS, Beijing 100190, China) 

  In the early 20th century, the British expedition to Tibet under Younghusband conducted a comprehensive survey about the climate & meteorology, population, elevations and river & lake systems in Lhasa and its surrounding areas that had been forbidden to enter previously. It is significant impact in the history of surveying in Tibet by the Westerners during the modern times. Based on previous studies and according to plenty of travel notes, investigation reports and research papers, this paper makes a further inquiry on the survey of the British expedition to Tibet. 

 

  Progress and Influence of the Danish Physicist Auger Bohr’s  

  Visit to China 

  YIN Xiaodong 

  (Physics Department of Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China) 

  Auger Bohr is a famous Danish physicist. His father Niels Bohr not only put forward Bohr’s model which successfully explained the hydrogen atom spectrum by introducing quantization condition, but also introduced complementary principle and Copenhagen interpretation to advance quantum mechanics, thus exerting a profound impact on the development of twentieth-century physics. Niels Bohr and Aager Bohr both won the Nobel Prize for physics. Niels Bohr visited China in 1937, which was a significant event in the Chinese academics and education circles. Auger Bohr also visited China in 1962 and 1973. This article describes and analyses the story of the China visit by Auger Bohr and his wife with Bent Nielsen. Bent Nielsen in 1962 based mainly on newly discovered archival records. This study shows that Auger Bohr’s visit not only provided concrete and practical help for the development of nuclear physics in China, but also resulted in the first agreement on scientific exchanges between the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and the West . At the time,   most Western countries did not recognize the PRC, but Auger Bohr agreed with his father: he opposed the international blockade against the PRC, continued to maintain the friendship with Chinese scientists, and would like to serve as a bridge for the communication between the physicists in the East and their counterparts in the West, demonstrating his spirit of scientific internationalism. 

 

            Actions at a Distance”: Martin Klein and Chinese Studies 

   in the History of Modern Physics 

  Danian Hu 

  Department of History, The City College of New York 

  Martin J. Klein (1924-2009) was a world-renowned historian of modern physics, who was one of a few pioneers in the historical studies of 20th century physics. Although Klein never visited China, his scholarship has deeply influenced some Chinese historians of science since the 1970s, which is not well known. This essay intends not only to introduce Klein’s distinguished career and eminent accomplishments in the history of science but also to present for the first time his warm support to and significant influence on Chinese historical studies in the history of modern physics. 

 

  A Further Discussion of the Process of Faraday’s Researches on Electromagnetic Rotation and Its Related Problems 

  QIAN Changyan 

   (College of Physics and Electronic InformationAnhui Normal UniversityWuhu 241000China) 

  In the light of Faraday's Diary, his works and his letters, this paper presents a careful investigation about the process of Faraday's researches on electromagnetic rotation and its related phenomena, and points out that the writing of Historical Sketch of Electro-magnetism had played a vital role in his discovery of the phenomenon of electromagnetic rotation, and that the discovery should be considered as consisting of a series of key experiments, and that any single experiment can be taken as its symbol. Furthermore, it discusses that the related researches and thought of Oersted, Ampère and Wollaston all had certain influence on Faraday’s electromagnetism researches, but decisive factors of his discovery should owe to his observant ability, superb experimental skill and firm scientific spirit. In addition, also cited in the paper are instances of the misunderstanding on the part of predecessors as regards Faraday’s electromagnetism researches.